兩岸學者:台青赴陸磁吸效應顯著

疑芶厙

2018-06-28

兩岸學者:台青赴陸磁吸效應顯著

AjobseekerfillsupanapplicationformatajobfairinWenxiancounty,Henanprovince.[XuHongxing/ForChinaDaily]Astheeconomyhasenteredintoaphaseofre-balancingfromemergingtomoresustainableandinclusivegrowth,whichiscalledthenewnormal,theChineselabormarketmightalsobefacedwithnewchallenges.Totalpopulationoftheworkingagehasshownnegativegrowthsince2011,whichmeanssupplyanddemandtendstobemorebalanced.Thisnaturallyleadstolesscompetitionwithinthelabormarketingeneral,whilefocusneedstobeonsolvingproblemsofemploymentstructureandfrictionalunemployment.Frictionalunemploymentisanacademicdefinitionmeaningwhenworkersleavetheirjobstofindbetterones.It"susuallyavoluntaryexit,butcanalsooccurfromalayofforterminationwithcause.Thetime,effortandexpensesittakestheworkertofindanewjobiscalledfriction.Whilethisfrictionproblemmightbeamorecommondifficultyamongbothauthoritiesandemployees,withthedeepeningofreformandadjustmentofeconomicstructureprocessingcomprehensively,attentionisneededrelatingtothreeaspectsofemploymentcontradiction:First,withthestructuralreformcontinuing,dealingwithover-capacityindustriesandshuttingdownzombiecompaniesnaturallyleadstoproblemsofstructuralandfrictionalunemploymentforemployeesintheseareas.Forexample,someworkersmightbenotbeabletomeetnewrequirementswhentransferringtonewpositions,letaloneinsomeruralareas,whenpoorerfarmersmaystrugglewiththelackofnecessaryworkskillsorqualifications.Second,forsomepartsofthepopulation,theimprovementofemploymentqualityiscriticallyindemand.Thispopulationreferstoflexibleemployees,especiallymigrantworkers,whichaccountsfor36percentoftotalurbanemployment,butonly40percentofthemhavesignedlaborcontracts.Theycan*tfullyenjoypublicservicesandtheirparticipationinsocialsecurityprogramshavealowrate.Manyofthemhavestrongmotivationtocomebacktoruralareasassoonastheyareover40yearsold.Thisisadangeroussignofurbanization*sreverse,whichwouldfurtherworsenthelaborshortage.Third,newpatternsofemploymentsuchasinformalemploymentareincreasing,whichwouldchallengethetraditionallaborrightsprotectionsystemthatusuallysecurestheserightsbasedontheworkunit.Howtobroadenthebenefitcoverageforinformalemployeesisanissuethatbothersmanycountriesaroundtheworld.Measurestotacklethechallengescanalsobefocusedintothreeareas:First,policiesshouldbebetterformulatedtoachieveadelicatebalancebetweenlabormarketflexibilityandthelaborsecuritysystem.Workersneedtobeencouragedtolearnmoreprofessionalskills,andatthesametimeenterprisesshouldallocatesocialresourcesinthemostefficientway,whichcombinedcanimprovesocialproductivity.Forexample,reformofthehouseholdregistrationsystemshouldbemovedforward,reasonablemeasurescouldbetakentoguidethefarmpopulationflowintocities,whichwoulddefinitelyincreaselaborsupply.InstitutionalimprovementsliketheLaborLawamendmentarealsoneeded,tobetterprotectemployees*rights.Second,measuresinthelongrunshouldbefocusingonhumanresourceeducationandcultivation.Asmanyteenagersusuallytendtogiveupstudyingandenterthelabormarketatveryyoungage,theyaredestinedtostrugglecopingwithemploymentfluctuationinthefuture.Soacomprehensiveeducationalandtrainingsystemcoveringtheentiresocietyandallagerangesisvitallyindemand,especiallytoimproveworkers*innovationandemploymentskills.Third,ononehand,thestructuralreformneedstokeeppushingforward,whileontheotherhand,socialpoliciesneedtobeusedasaguaranteeforresidents*basicstandardofliving.Sothepublicemploymentservicesystemshouldbeimproved,inordertoreducethetimeitcoststheunemployedtofindanotherjob.Andatthesametime,trytobreakinequalityofthecurrentsocialsecuritypublicservicessystem,whicharedividedbyruralandurbanareas,industries,identityandsexuality.Inoneword,alltheresidentscouldbenefitfromthereform*sachievement.Confidencefromthepublicfortheauthoritytotackletheemploymentissueshouldbestrengthened;solidprogresshasbeengraduallyobtainedinrecentyears.In2016,100billionyuanofspecialfundstocompensateemployeesincuttingover-capacityindustrieswereallocatedfromthegovernment,andpoliciesaimedatmakingtheentrepreneurshipenvironmentmorelivelyhavealsoseenfruitfulachievements.WuZheyu*sre-writefromCaiFang*sopinionarticlepublishedonPeople*sDaily.

兩岸學者:台青赴陸磁吸效應顯著

京台學者共研會昨在京舉行籲惠台措施建統一發佈平台香港文匯報訊據中新社報道,第三屆京台學者共研會昨日在北京舉行。與會兩岸學者認為,大陸發展對台灣青年磁吸效應顯著。大陸高速發展及「31條措施」等優惠政策為台青赴大陸求學、就業與創業營造了有利條件。台灣華梵大學人文教育研究中心副教授張壯熙表示,大陸高科技產業與經濟社會不斷發展,高校研究水平和國際化程度日益提高,這與台灣的「悶經濟」以及愈發衰弱的高等教育形成鮮明對比。因此,台灣學生申請到大陸高校就讀人數持續增加,僅上海交通大學一校,今年就有逾600名台灣高中生申請。惠台措施仍有提升空間台灣空中大學公共行政系教授李允傑以江蘇昆山、福建廈門和遼寧營口三市為例,分析了大陸各項優惠措施對台灣青年創業的積極作用。李允傑指出,台灣服務業佔GDP比重接近70%,在技術、人才等方面具有優勢,而大陸不僅擁有龐大的市場和資金,也在謀求經濟轉型,這為兩岸創業者在服務業領域合作創造了條件。他提出,兩岸應建立長期、制度化的服務產業合作機制,以一體化視野看待兩岸產業發展,優化利用雙方人才、技術、品牌與資金優勢,共同拓展全球市場。前中國國民黨大陸事務部主任黃清賢引述相關數據說,台灣18至29歲青年群體因「31條措施」增加赴大陸發展意願的比例超過60%,而台青對大陸不友善比例下降到%,10年前這個數字是%。「青年需要發展前景,會逐漸認識到大陸可以提供更大舞台,對大陸態度也發生轉變。」黃清賢說。國際關係學院公共管理系副教授于強基於調查數據指出,在兩岸青年的交流中,雙方觀念差異明顯彌合,對彼此的善意不斷累積。應該繼續為台灣青年赴大陸發展創造條件,並茪O增強兩岸青年交流,為兩岸關係未來發展奠定有利基礎。中國政法大學講師王理萬則表示,目前制度並非足夠完善,惠及台胞的措施仍有提升空間。他提出三點建議,包括逐步打破「編制壁壘」,為台灣青年人才進入「體制內」提供制度保障;在設計台灣人才引進制度時,除向高層次人才傾斜外,還應關注多元普通人才,為他們進入大陸就業創業提供便利;各省市、各部門落實「31條措施」步伐不夠協調,且缺乏各地配套措施統一發佈和獲取平台,需要補足。﹝